Monthly Archives: November 2014

WHERE DOES FUKUSHIMA GO – Pacific and Atmosphere


By Marushka France

WHERE DOES FUKUSHIMA GO UPON ENTERING THE OCEAN?

September 25, 2013   [Last Update Feb 111,2014]
PREFACE
Radionuclides go everywhere. The first fallout did fall, first or highest to least amount  (both ocean and landfall):
Coast of North America into north Pacific, Bering Strait, Alaska, Canada, Pacific Northwest of USA
(Washington and Oregon), California and Baja California/Mexico, and then EASTward around the globe. Back sweep also hit Japan hard, of course, far east Asian continent (Russia, Korea)… Initial fallout at least ast far as 1,700 km from Fukushima. (as reported in enews). 

Pure Propaganda
As predicted, IAEA is about control of information – propaganda – and not transparency, not disclosure. IAEA is the pro-nuclear body for U.N., overrides anything and everything W.H.O. can say or do.
As an example, this recent ‘report’ (cough-cough) – this piece of propaganda issued by IAEA —  expects us  to believe  that NO contamination from Fukushima will reach NorthAmerica! Absolutely preposterous!
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/PDFplus/2013/cn207/Presentations/1028-Aoyama.pdf

Not Valid for Tracking Radionuclides – NOAA tsunami map
A)   Often used, the NOAA TSUNAMI MAP IS NOT the same as radionuclides (aka radioistopes) making its way across the Pacific to other shores:
NOAA.org>> the initial Tsunami http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/
One year later http://www.noaa.gov/features/03_protecting/japantsunami_oneyearlater.html
B) ‘Thumbs down’ on tracking plastics http://adrift.org.au/fukushima  This one also ignores the far north, Bering Sea, and we know that got hit.
C, Certainly we do want to track the debris from Japan, it could be a mammoth problem, not sure how much radioactivirty might be involved:  Washington blog article includes Japanese debris distribution of U of Hawaii  –  I would NOT assume debris of various sizes, weight, dimensions and type to behave the same as radioisotopes.   Nor do we know if they got hit with radionuclide contamination.  Plastics tracked across Pacific, again, not the same as radioisotopes, cannot expect the same behavior of unlike material.
http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2013/08/west-coast-of-north-america-to-be-hit-hard-by-fukushima-radiation.html

11.11.2013 SYNOPSIS
There is a difference between radionuclides spreading across the Pacific and debris from the tsunami… How it travels, variable depths…  Briefly:  radionuclides’ fallout on to land and rivers and (both) travels to the ocean, radionuclides tend to coalesce and float together (referred to as pools, clouds or streams);  settle in at about 1-100 meters depth, travel along ocean currents (varies by weight).
In the ocean, uranium buckyballs flew across the ocean’s surface in days after 311;  radionuclides also biomagnify up the food chain; can be estimated by the degree of plankton uptake; concentrates in seawater, sea spray and is especially troublesome along coastlines – the entire Pacific rim.
Radionuclides also find their way back into the ATMOSPHERE  via the natural water (hydrolic) cycle.  Radionuclides traveling up with evaporation process is called ‘resuspension,’  thus finding its way to be redistributed on land wherever rain falls.  The life-giving micronutrients from the ocean – the source of life and 50-85% of the oxygen in our world, is thus transformed into genomic instability, every possible breakdown of systems that sustain all life… e.g.  death.  Call it ecocide or omnicide, the more we pollute our environment, the more we pollute ourselves.  The global growth of chronic disease is in step with the spread of man-made radioisotopes and man-made chemicals…. it destroys the ‘stuff of life’ as we know it. 

WHERE DOES FUKUSHIMA GO UPON ENTERING THE OCEAN?
Tracking Radionuclides aka Radioisotopes
‘Plume’ is being used to address both Atmospheric (NOAA) and sometimes ‘into the ocean’ dispersal as well. Important to notice the distinction and be clear which one we mean when we post or write about Fukushima. Likewise, ‘cloud’ is being used to describe the coalescing of radioisotopes in pools that float and move together. Another study calls it ‘rivers’ or ‘streams’.  Be very clear in disseminating information.

1. The first detection, of course, “TheComprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is meant to deter nuclear explosions by everyone, everywhere: on the Earth’s surface, in the atmosphere, underwater and underground.   (All nukes have their own chemical ‘signature as well.)http://www.ctbto.org/verification-regime/the-11-march-japan-disaster/

2. Buckyballs Uranium UC Davis Study
http://www.enviroreporter.com/investigations/fukushima/a-radioactive-nightmare/
(this site mistakenly used tsunami map to represent the spread of radioisotopes across the Pacific)
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/1874.abstract?sid=ae203ffc-1b97-4e17-b87f-6114a5936f2
0riginal paper: Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater

3. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume 
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096706371300112X

4. [German] Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of 137Cs released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima
http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/7/3/034004/article and with soundt he limitations of the study are well spelled out, read the whole thing, watch their video, it is very informative.
http://brightcove.vo.llnwd.net/e1/uds/pd/105920850001/105920850001_1727324228001_abstract-video-4257289161e45e1f86c5b5c2f0b6128f-converted.mp4

5. Various agencies have done plume modeling estimates. These take weather conditions and releases and estimate where the radioactive releases went or will go.
http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?page_id=9971

6. NOAA and Navy dispersion model “”Science On a Sphere” 
http://www.sos.noaa.gov/Datasets/dataset.php?id=332
The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model Same model used
http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?page_id=9971

7. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the National Atmospheric Deposition
Program in an effort to monitor North American precipitation samples for the presence of nuclear fallout in response to the Japan Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident that occurred on March 11, 2011.
http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/fukushima/

8. Radionuclides (aka radioisotopes) like Strontium will collect in ‘rivers’ or ‘streams’ of
contamination…  (SEE ALSO #10b and #11) will not ‘dilute’… Evidence of bioaccumulation in species, biomagnification- denser concentrations in the Pacific, as well as remaining in collective rivers and streams of its own making are derived from decades-long research  chemical changes interacting with the salt…  all speak to multiple, deadlier pathways
http://fukushima-diary.com/2012/05/strontium-90-spread-over-1000km-evenly-in-pacific-ocean/inthis article of yours:>>>>>
1. Strontium 90 exists ~ 17-62 % cesium 134/137; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology assumed it would be 0.1 %.
2. Strontium90 evenly spreads from 170km offshore Chiba to 1000km southeast to Japan. spreads from 1m to 100m deep in the sea as well.

9. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters
A comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout
http://www.biogeosciences.net/10/5481/2013/bg-10-5481-2013.html

10. Concentration & RESUSPENSION of Radionuclides from ocean back into atmosphere brings the fallout inland – AGAIN – and contaminates through rainfall & snowfall…

10a  In the ocean, radionuclides become concentrated Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean
[SciTech Connect] by Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W. 1984
in the ocean STRATIFIED about 100m ~> into the atmosphere ~> into the rainfall everywhere…
globally(from the era of atomic bomb tests in the Pacific)   [added 11.11.2013]
 http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/6802363-hfGOhq/6802363.pdf
”On May 16, 1958, the Wahoo event was detonated underwater two miles south-west of Enewetak.
Plankton sampling was begun as soon as possible, and at H + 6 hours the major part of the total
radioactivity was found in the top 25 m and about one-eighth at the thermocline, 110 m. By H + 28 hoursthe activity was distributed through the upper half of the mixed layer to about 50 m, but by H +• 48 hours it was concentrated at 100 m, the upper edge of the thermocline. At no time was the activity uniformly mixed; it was always stratified”
[The thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water
layer. The definitions of these layers are based on temperature.]

10b Through the water cycle
“National Weather Service; Jetstream-Online school for Weather; The Hydrologic Cycle” [water cycle] and returns inland in rainfall
http://www.srh.weather.gov/jetstream/atmos/hydro.htm
Some Radionuclides undergoes ‘RESUSPENSION‘
“The ocean is known to be a major source of atmospheric particulate [ matter]. There is considerable,evidence, however, that the chemical composition of the particles in the marine aerosol is often considerably different from that of seawater. Barker and Zeitlin found enrichment factors for transition metals in the aerosol approaching and exceeding three and four orders of magnitude relative to sodium. Cattell and Scott suggest that a biogenic agent may be responsible for the approximately 20,000-fold enrichment of copper during aerosol production in the ocean.The whole question of fractionation at the sea surface was the subject of a 1976 review article.^’
It seems possible, even likely, that the correlation we observe between radionuclides in plankton
and in the air samples is due, at least in part, to resuspension.”
Because of the ocean spray being concentrated, as well as fog, and the presence of uranium
buckyballs specific to Fukushima, (at least) and the higher likelihood of fish consumption in
coastal areas (internal contamination) — coastal areas might experience a higher likelihood of
internal, radionuclide contamination.  [added 11.11.2013]
{this is also why Dr. Busby estimates coastal areas being more likely to have higher rates of cancer…   both resuspension and higher likelihood of fish consumption…  see his work relative to Sellafield, UK} 

11. Further understanding of the damage of the atomic age on our environment, and climate
change
11a Dr. Rosalie Bertell talks about the5 layers of atmosphere and the “Five Rivers or
Vapours” upon which the flow of air and water – sustains us all.
This entry is solely to support the ‘rivers’ and ‘streams’ metaphor as very real, not discovered until mid-Century [and a part was quickly destroyed by an atomic bomb]   and how fast esp jetstream moves, hownthe planet has its own highways, byways, ….  circuitous routes –  types and pathways — in the atmosphere and in the oceans and seas. 
Rosalie Bertell – Space Weapons of War – part 1 of 4 – PLANET EARTH
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaSkCZ_Dcg0

11b blog by Jan Hemmer  [update 11.11.2013]
“Nuclear Industry kills Ozone Layer and stops Oxygen production in Oceans”
July 21, 2013 by Mikkai
http://tekknorg.wordpress.com/2013/07/21/nuclear-industry-kills-ozone-layer-and-stops-oxygen-production-in-oceans/

Source : Marushka France

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Tepco starts filling cable trench with cement as it pumps out radioactive water


Nov 26, 2014 

Tokyo Electric Power Co. started work Tuesday to fill an underground trench at the disaster-stricken Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant with cement while pumping up radioactive water inside at the same time.

The power company reported the beginning of the cement-pouring work for the cable trench for reactor 2 at a meeting in Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, with government representatives on measures to deal with increasing radioactive water at the power station.

Tepco expects to finish the work by the end of next March. The company will begin next month pouring cement in reactor 3′s trench, hoping to complete the work also by the end of March.

The trenches for the two reactors are estimated to hold 11,000 tons of radioactive water in total. The water is believed to be causing the pollution of groundwater under the seaside section of the power plant.

On Tuesday, Tepco injected 80 cu. meters of cement in the reactor 2 trench in an operation that lasted two and a half hours from around 9:30 a.m. The trench holds radioactive water that has flowed from the reactor’s turbine building.

At first, Tepco planned to stop the flow by freezing water inside the joints between the turbine building and the trench so that it can entirely remove the radioactive water from there.

But Tepco could not fully freeze the water or block the flow. So, the firm switched to the current plan to inject cement in and remove the radioactive water from the trench simultaneously.

Source: Japan Times
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/11/26/national/tepco-starts-filling-cable-trench-cement-pumps-radioactive-water/#.VHVI88m-mKF

Fukushima I NPP: Plan C Also Failed in Plugging Reactor 2 Trench… Now What?


November 24, 2014
Plan D of Course!

But first, recall that Plan A was to install freezing pipes at the head of the trench leading from Reactor 2 turbine building to create an ice plug so that the extremely contaminated water that had been sitting in the trench since the very beginning of the nuclear accident could be pumped out. TEPCO started the work in April this year.

That failed. The ice plug didn’t quite form.

Then recall that Plan B was to dump tons (literally) of ice and dry ice in the trench near the freezing pipes to lower the temperature of the water around the freezing pipes so that the ice plug would finally form. Workers dumped ice all day and all night, in the high ambient radiation right at the trench. That was in hot August. Try to freeze the trench with ice in hot August.

That also failed. Dry ice clogged the pipe, and the ice plug didn’t quite form, and TEPCO admitted there was water still coming into the trench from the turbine building. The water sitting in the turbine building comes from the reactor building after it cools the molten core somewhere in the building, and it is warm.

So TEPCO came up with Plan C.

What was Plan C? It was to fill the gap between the incomplete ice plug and the turbine building wall with fillers. TEPCO chose the combination of grout and concrete. A plug of ice, grout and concrete was formed. Sort of.

From TEPCO’s document uploaded at Nuclear Regulation Authority’s site on 11/21/2014, the plug – pink and light green in the diagram is grout (different types), dark green is concrete:

That failed, just as I predicted.

TEPCO finally admitted on November 17 that it was a failure after pumping out some 200 tonnes of this highly contaminated water on November 17 and seeing that the water level in the trench didn’t go down as much as they had calculated. The water was still coming in from the turbine building, and the groundwater was probably seeping in.

But not to worry. TEPCO has Plan D, and it has been already approved by Nuclear Regulation Authority.

So what is Plan D? To fill the trench with cement while pumping out the water that gets displaced (in theory) by the cement.

(Do you want to bet whether that is going to fail?)

From Mainichi English (11/18/2014), from the original Japanese article on 11/17/2014:

An effort to stop contaminated water from flowing into a trench at the crippled Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant failed to completely halt the flow, announced Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), the plant’s operator, on Nov. 17.

A TEPCO representative said, “We believe we have not completely stopped the water. Groundwater may also be entering the trench. We will closely analyze the changes in water level in the trench.”

TEPCO says that when around 200 tons of contaminated water was removed from the trench, the water level in the trench should have fallen by around 80 centimeters if the point of leakage between the plant’s No. 2 reactor turbine building and the trench had been fully sealed. However, the water level only fell by 21 centimeters, so TEPCO determined that the leak must be continuing.

While the water remains in the trench, TEPCO cannot create a planned underground wall of frozen soil around the No. 1 through 4 reactor buildings to stop water leakages.

And this image from Tokyo Shinbun (11/21/2014):

and reference to Plan D:

トンネルから汚染水を少しずつ抜きながら、水中で薄く広がる特殊なセメントを流し込んでトンネルをふさぐ方法への切り替えを提案する

(TEPCO) will propose (to Nuclear Regulation Authority) a new method of plugging the trench by pouring in the special cement that spread thin and wide in the water while removing the contaminated water in the trench gradually.

Special cement?

TEPCO says in the document (page 9) they submitted to NRA that it will be a mixture of cement, fly ash and underwater-inseparable admixtures (セメント、フライアッシュおよび水中不分離混和剤などの配合調整). They will use the tremie concrete placement method.

(Do you want to bet whether that is going to fail?)

The NRA meeting on November 21, 2014 was funny without participants intending to be funny, from what I read in the tweets by people watching the meeting.

At one point, Commissioner Fuketa exasperatedly asked TEPCO representatives, “So what was the point of trying to freeze the water? Was freezing even necessary at all?

The answer was no. TEPCO’s Shirai admitted (according to the tweet by @jaikoman on 11/21/2014) that there was a talk inside TEPCO that the ice plug was not necessary.

So why did they do it, and why did NRA approve it?

No one knows and no one is held accountable, while workers had to set up freezing pipes, then to pour ice, dry ice, grout, concrete, and to pump this highly contaminated water over the past 8 months in high radiation exposure. TEPCO hasn’t disclosed the radiation exposure for the workers.

Spource: EXSKF
http://ex-skf.blogspot.nl/2014/11/fukushima-i-npp-plan-c-also-failed-in.html

LDP Government in Japan on Suicide Mission


November 24, 2014
The LDP aims for collective suicide by extending Japan’s nuclear reactors’ life span to 60 years while pushing forward with the Oma nuclear plant, which will purportedly be the world’s first 100 percent MOX facility!
Does everyone remember what Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 explosion looked like? Unit 3 was running MOX fueld. Its explosion strongly resembled a mushroom cloud and has been interpreted as involving a nuclear criticality. Plutonium from the Daiichi explosions, likely from Unit 3, was found in Lithuania.
MOX fuel is extraordinarily dangerous. Japan’s earthquake activity has been increasing. At least one of Japan’s volcanoes is displaying increased activity. Japan must be intent on self-destruction and will take the Pacific Ocean and North America with it, if the US, Russia, UK, or France, don’t beat them to annihilating humans on Earth:

Gen Kaga, Toshio Kawada, Koji Nishimura and Tomoyoshi Otsu (2014, November 14) Nuclear operators push to open new plant, extend life of aging reactors. The Asahi Shimbun,
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201411140068

 

The government set the acceptable operational term of nuclear reactors at 40 years, in principle, after the Fukushima disaster, but it allows utilities to extend the period on a one-time basis by a maximum of 20 years….

The Oma plant will be the world’s first 100 percent MOX nuclear facility, where only mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, consisting of plutonium and uranium, is used at reactor cores for the purpose of consuming plutonium produced in processing spent nuclear fuel.
At conventional plutonium-thermal nuclear plants, MOX fuel is used at just one-fourth to one-third of their reactor cores at most, and conventional uranium fuel is used for the remaining part. Compared with uranium fuel, it is more difficult for control rods to suppress nuclear chain reactions of MOX fuel.

Although countermeasures, such as enhancing the capabilities of control rods and introducing larger tanks for boric acid water to better control atomic reactions, will be taken at the full MOX facility, those efforts are expected to be carefully examined during the safety screening by the NRA to check if they are sufficient…. “No full MOX facility has so far gone online around the world,” NRA Chairman Shunichi Tanaka said at a Nov. 12 news conference. “We will examine extremely carefully (if countermeasures are sufficient).”

Unbelievable. That is all I can think to write.

Meanwhile, emissions at Daiichi look worse this morning than they have the last week or so. Radiation readings in the US have been higher than I’ve seen since winter 2011. The forces of entropy reign.

Source: Majia’Blog
http://majiasblog.blogspot.jp/2014/11/ldp-government-in-japan-on-suicide.html?m=1

Work starts to fill tainted underground tunnels


Nov. 25, 2014 
Workers at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have started pouring cement into underground tunnels filled with highly radioactive water.

The effort is aimed at replacing the water with cement. The water is believed to be leaking into the nearby sea after mixing with groundwater.

Workers on Tuesday poured into the tunnels 80 cubic meters of cement that can solidify in water. The plant’s operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company, said the water did not overflow during the work.

The operator says it plans to check the effectiveness of the measure in about a month after suspending the work temporarily. It says if there are no problems, it will resume the work to finish it by March.

The firm initially planned to freeze water at the ends of the tunnels to stop inflow from reactor buildings, and remove the contaminated water. But the plan did not work. By last week, the utility had decided to adopt the new method.

Workers using the method are likely exposed to more radiation than under the original plan.

 
Source: NHK

After failures, TEPCO to use special cement to prevent contaminated water leaks


November 22, 2014 

The operator of the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant plans to fill in trenches on the coastline in yet another attempt to prevent highly contaminated water from pouring into the sea.

Under the plan, approved by the Nuclear Regulation Authority on Nov. 21, Tokyo Electric Power Co. will inject a special cement mixture into the seaside trenches of the No. 2 and No. 3 reactors while pumping up radioactive water accumulating in them.

The special mixture does not absorb water so it can spread more easily along the bottom of the trenches, displacing the tainted water.

The new method will allow radioactive materials to remain in the surrounding soil, but TEPCO decided to employ the technique because it puts high priority on preventing massive amounts of highly contaminated water from leaking into the ocean.

This spring, TEPCO tried to stop the water influx at the trench for the No. 2 reactor by freezing the junction of the turbine building and the trench, but the operation was tough-going.

The company then attempted to stop the water inflow with a cement mixture, but was unable to do so completely.

Source: Asahi Shimbun
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201411220029

TEPCO gives up on freezing tainted water


Nov. 21, 2014 
 
The operator of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant is drastically changing its plan to remove highly radioactive water from underground tunnels at the facility.

The tunnels have been inundated with water from the plant’s heavily contaminated reactor buildings.

Tokyo Electric Power Company, or TEPCO, this year began work to freeze water at the ends of the tunnels to block the inflow. The firm finished the work early this month.

But TEPCO officials found that water levels in the tunnels were still changing in sync with volumes in the reactor buildings.

The officials admitted to the Nuclear Regulation Authority on Friday that the tunnels hadn’t been plugged.

They said they’re giving up on the plan, and proposed pouring cement into the flooded tunnels while removing water from them. They said they want this done from late November.

The authority’s commissioners asked whether the new method can really halt the inflow. They also spoke of the risk of cracks forming in cement.

The authority approved TEPCO’s plan in the end, on condition that the procedure be halted in late December to see whether it’s working.

Commenting on the change, one commissioner asked what all the trouble over the past months was for.

 
Source: NHK