|by Christina MacPherson|
|by Christina MacPherson|
Since the Fukushima accident, everyone understands the situation as h eperceives it to be and everyone is right, it is very serious indeed, but still we haven’t seen almost anything yet. And what we may risk to see and understand?
When sharing the galette des rois, some cookies are stuffed with a a small gold coin (a gold Napoleon). If a greedy one swallows it inadvertently, he will have to wait one to two days to recover it but his health will not be affected.
Imagine the coins gold plated and filled with actinides (highly toxic alpha radiotransmitters) such as:
They all weigh 6 grams, have a diameter of 21 mm and the same visual appearance.
A) gold plated Uranium 238
B) gold plated Plutonium 239
C) gold plated Plutonium 238
D) gold plated Polonium 210
We will not see any difference in appearance and weight.
You swallow any of those and nothing happens, either immediately or later.
The the lethal dose threshold of an inhaled monolithic dust is:
0.835gram for A
0.000 000 4 gram for B
0.000 000 001 6 gram for C
0.000 000 000 007 gram for D
This means that the lethal dose of these coins could destroy:
6 lives for A (Uranium 238, there is a lot)
13,475,000 lives for B, more than Paris Metropolis population (Plutonium 239,there is a lot)
3700000000 lives for C, more than half of mankind (Plutonium 238 is rare)
850 billion lives for D, 120 times the world’s population. (Polonium 210 is very rare)
Yet these coins A, B, C and D have not caused you any damage after being swallowed, not even long after. Because they were all covered with a tenth mm of gold , which prevented the huge flow of alpha particles to destroy even just a little of your digestive tract.
Conclusion:alpha emitters radionuclides must remain CONFINED.
Avoid that nuclear plants explode, even one, especially those using MOX,such as the ones which are many in France.
this, are you still willing to fight FOR nuclear power?
Keiji Nokitowa 轩 樋 启示 Kosokudoro
There’s such a release of 137Cs (1st Gen) around Daiichi we can reasonably assume that the corium is in contact with the sea
Cesium soars in water under No. 1 plant
Tokyo Electric Power Co. on Tuesday reported a surge in radioactive cesium levels in groundwater in an observation well at its Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
This signals radioactive contamination is spreading under the disaster-stricken facility.
Water sampled from the well Monday contained 9,000 becquerels of cesium-134 per liter and 18,000 becquerels of cesium-137, both about 90 times the levels found Friday, Tepco said. The well is near the turbine building for reactor 2 and about 25 meters from the plant’s harbor.
“We still don’t know why the level of radiation surged, but we are continuing efforts to avert further expansion of contamination,” a Tepco spokesman stated.
Government guidelines permit cesium-134 at 60 becquerels per liter and -137 at 90 becquerels. Once ingested, the substances accumulate in muscle and bone and are believed to cause cancers.
The water collected Monday also contained 890,000 becquerels of substances that include strontium, which emits beta radiation, compared with 900,000 becquerels found in groundwater sampled from the well Friday.
Groundwater cesium levels in the well and other observation wells had remained low until recently. Readings were often below the minimum detectable levels.
Explaining the reason for the low contamination in groundwater, Tepco had said cesium can be easily absorbed by soil.
Following the latest findings, however, Tepco officials now say they do not know why the cesium levels have surged.
“Mud that has absorbed radioactive cesium may have got mixed with the water. We will measure the (contamination of the) water again,” a Tepco official told reporters at the Fukushima Prefectural Government office.
The official also said Tepco will determine if radioactive substances are seeping into the sea after studying its seawater survey.
The company also said groundwater collected Monday from a well located near the reactor 3 turbine building and about 23 meters from the port was found to have contained 1,700 becquerels of beta radiation-emitting substances per liter.
The reading was about 20 times the level detected Thursday and the highest for such substances in the well.
The new readings came two days after Tepco said tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used in glow-in-the-dark watches, was present at levels 10 times the permitted rate.
Tepco said in late June it had detected the highly toxic strontium-90, a byproduct of nuclear fission that can cause bone cancer if ingested, at levels 30 times the permitted rate.
The substances, which were released by the meltdowns of reactors at the plant in the aftermath of the huge tsunami of March 2011, were not absorbed by soil and have made their way into groundwater.
Subsoil water usually flows out to sea, meaning these two substances could normally make their way into the ocean, possibly affecting marine life and ultimately impacting humans who eat sea creatures.
Last August the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) estimated 15,000 tera becquerels of cesium radiationhad leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan.
One tera becquerel equals 1 trillion becquerels.
At that time, the estimated cesium release was ‘equal 168 Hiroshima bombs’ as the atomic bomb atomic bomb dropped on Japan during World War II had only released 89 tera becquerels of cesium.
On Wednesday, TEPCO releasedrevised estimates of the amount of radiation leaked from Fukushima.
The new estimated calculated the level of cesium released to be 360,000 tera becquerels.
That is 24 times higher than last August’s estimate and represents a cesium leak equal to 4,023 Hiroshima bombs.
The estimate is also more than 4 times Chernobylwhich is estimated to have released 85,000 tera becquerels of cesium radiation into atmosphere.
TEPCO’s newly revised estimates of the Fukushima leak are also not all-inclusive and do not cover the entire date range from the start of the disaster.
The estimate of the total atmosphere release is based on data collected from between March 12 to 31, 2011,
TEPCO states the amount of radiation released into the atmosphere in April and during the following months is likely to be only 1% of the amount released in March.
That amount is considered to be ‘insignificant’ and is not included in the new estimate.
The estimated amount of radiation leaked into Pacific Ocean was extrapolated from data collected from March 26 to September 30, 2011.
TEPCO warned this data was collected from a ‘small amount of data acquired in a limited area’ and further warned ‘further data still needs to be collected to review the validity’ of their estimates.
The new estimate also did not provide figures for the amount of radiation leaked into the water pits that run beneath the Fukushima’s nuclear reactors or for radiation leaked into contaminated water that TEPCO has collected into storage tanks.
Last June, TEPCO estimatedthe amount of radiation leaked into the underground water pits to be up to nearly to two times higher than the amount of radiation released into the atmosphere.
TEPCO. has seen a rise in the level of radioactive tritium in seawater within the harbor at the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
A sample collected Friday contained around 1,100 becquerels of tritium per liter, the highest level detected in seawater since the nuclear crisis at the plant started in March 2011, the utility said Monday.
An official of the Nuclear Regulation Authority said groundwater containing radioactive substances may be seeping into the harbor from the plant site and there is a need to carry out a careful investigation because the data collected so far are limited.
The sample with the highest tritium concentration was collected near a water intake on the east side of the reactor 1 turbine building. Its level was more than double that of a sample taken on June 10 in the same area.
A Japanese prime ministerial envoy secretly promised to the United States that Japan would resume its controversial “pluthermal” program, using light-water reactors to burn plutonium, according to documents obtained by the Mainichi.
The secret promise was made by Hiroshi Ogushi, then parliamentary secretary of the Cabinet Office, to Daniel Poneman, deputy secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy, during Ogushi’s visit to the United States on behalf of then Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda in September last year.
The revelation comes as Japan’s pluthermal project remains suspended in the wake of the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster due to safety concerns. The fact that a Japanese official promised to the U.S. to implement such a controversial project without a prior explanation to the Japanese public is expected to stir up controversy.
According to the official documents obtained by the Mainichi, upon being pressed to reduce the amount of plutonium in Japan that could be diverted to military use, Ogushi told Poneman that Japan would burn plutonium in plutonium-thermal (pluthermal) reactors. The then ruling Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) was in the final stages of formulating its nuclear energy policy at the time.
Under the pluthermal plan, spent nuclear fuel generated in light-water reactors is reprocessed to extract plutonium, which is then mixed with uranium to create mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for use in power generation. However, many experts have raised questions about the program, citing its high costs and the risks posed by the fuel’s comparatively low melting point and the decreased effectiveness of control rods. The plan to burn plutonium in conventional reactors was introduced in 2009 because there were no prospects for putting the Monju prototype fast-breeder reactor into practical use.
The documents that the Mainichi obtained are a compilation of cables recording the Ogushi-Poneman talks in the U.S. on Sept. 12 last year. During the meeting, Ogushi explained that Japan would inject all available policy resources to break away from nuclear power generation in the 2030s, that it would steadfastly promote the nuclear fuel cycle program in the medium and long term, and that Japan would end research on the Monju reactor after confirming its achievements. The explanation was in accordance with the government’s Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment, which was finalized on Sept. 14.
The promotion of a nuclear fuel cycle implies extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Aomori Prefecture. But Japan’s “zero nuclear power” policy and the suspension of the Monju reactor could leave the nation without a facility to burn plutonium. Poneman expressed concern that this would create a situation in which plutonium could be diverted to military use. In response, Ogushi promised the continuation of the pluthermal program to burn plutonium in light-water reactors.
During an interview with the Mainichi, Ogushi declined to reveal the details of the meeting, saying, “I can’t disclose whom I met from a diplomatic standpoint.” He added that he didn’t remember the pluthermal issue.
The Innovative Strategy for Energy and the Environment states that “nuclear reactors whose safety has been confirmed will be utilized,” but contains no reference to pluthermal plans.
Yukio Edano, a House of Representatives legislator who was serving as economy, trade and industry minister at the time, defended Ogushi, saying Japan had made no distinction between pluthermal and conventional reactors that were to be operated. “There were no such micro-level talks in the Energy and Environment Council. I would have given the same answer (if I had visited the U.S.),” he said.
The current administration led by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe also upholds a policy to resume the pluthermal program, according to documents obtained by the Mainichi that were produced by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry on March 1 and submitted to minister Toshimitsu Motegi. The documents clearly state that the government will “promote the use of MOX fuel in light-water reactors (pluthermal) after reprocessing (nuclear fuel) at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant.” Based on the content of the documents, Motegi stated at a lower house Committee on Economy, Trade and Industry session on March 22, “We will steadily promote the pluthermal plans.”
Despite the country not knowing which nuclear reactors will be authorized to resume operations following the July implementation of the new regulatory standards, the government has been pushing ahead with its plans to restart the controversial pluthermal program.
“It is abnormal for sure,” said one official with the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. “But it can’t be helped if the Rokkasho plant is to be put into operation.”